The Torque Converter in Automatic Transmissions.
Understanding Torque Converters
By Aaron Gold
The torque converter is one of the most misunderstood – or, perhaps, non-understood – parts of the powertrain.
Torque converters are sealed units; their innards rarely see the light of day, and when they do, they're still pretty hard
to figure out! This article will take you on a guided tour of the torque converter from front to back (well, technically,
we'll go back to front), and help you to understand how the parts work together.
Let's start with a little theory. The torque converter in an automatic transmission serves the same purpose as
the clutch in a manual transmission. The engine needs to be connected to the rear wheels so the vehicle will move,
and disconnected so the engine can continue to run when the vehicle is stopped. One way to do this is to use a
device that physically connects and disconnects the engine and the transmission – a clutch. Another method
is to use some type of fluid coupling, such as a torque converter.
Imagine you have two fans facing each other.
Turn one fan on, and it will blow air over the blades of the second fan, causing it to spin. But if you hold
the second fan still, the first fan will keep right on spinning.
That's exactly how a torque converter works.
One "fan," called the impeller, is connected to the engine (together with the front cover, it forms the outer shell
of the converter). The other fan, the turbine, is connected to the transmission input shaft. Unless the transmission
is in neutral or park, any motion of the turbine will move the vehicle.
Instead of using air, the torque converter
uses a liquid medium, which cannot be compressed – oil, otherwise known as transmission fluid. The
spinning impeller pushes the oil against the turbine, causing it to spin. But if the turbine is held still
(the car is stopped with the brakes applied) the impeller can keep right on spinning.
Release the brakes,
and the turbine is free to turn. Step on the accelerator and the impeller will spin faster, pushing more oil
against the blades of the turbine and making it spin faster.
Once the oil has been pushed against the turbine blades, it needs to get back to the impeller so it can be
used again. (Unlike our fan analogy, where we have a room full of air, the transmission is a sealed vessel
that only holds so much oil.) That's where the stator comes in.
The stator is a small finned wheel that sits between the impeller and the turbine. The stator is not
attached to either the turbine or the impeller – it freewheels, but only in the same direction
as the other parts of the converter (a one-way clutch ensures that it can only spin in one direction).
When the impeller spins, the moving oil pushes against the fins of the stator.
The one-way clutch keeps
the stator still, and the fins redirect the oil back to the impeller. As the turbine speeds up, oil
begins to flow back to the impeller on its own (a combination of the turbine's design and centrifugal
force). The oil now pushes on the back side of the stator's fins, and the one-way clutch allows it to
spin. It's job now done, the stator spins freely and doesn't affect oil flow.
Because there is no direct connection
in the torque converter, the impeller will always spin faster than the turbine – a factor known
as "slippage." Slippage needs to be controlled, otherwise the vehicle might never move. That's where
the stall speed comes in. Let's say a torque converter has a stall speed of 2,500 RPM.
If the vehicle isn't
moving by the time the engine (and therefore the impeller) reaches 2,500 RPM, one of two things will happen:
either the vehicle will start to move, or the engine RPM will stop increasing. (If the vehicle won't move
by the time the converter reaches the stall speed, either it's overloaded or the driver is holding it with
The stall speed is a key factor, because it
determines how and when power will be delivered to the transmission under all conditions. Drag racing
engines produce power at high RPM, so drag racers will often use a converter with a high stall speed,
which will slip until the engine is producing maximum power.
Diesel trucks put out most of their power
at low RPM, so a torque converter with a low stall speed is the best way to get moving with a heavy load.
And now we get to one of the best-kept performance secrets: by altering the design of the torque converter,
it is possible to tune the stall speed to match an engine's power curve.
Torque converter slippage is important during acceleration, but it becomes a liability once the
vehicle reaches cruising speed. That's why virtually all modern torque converters use a lock-up clutch.
The purpose of the lockup clutch is to directly connect the engine and the transmission
once slippage is no longer needed. When the lockup clutch is engaged, a plate attached to the
turbine is hydraulically pushed up against the front cover (which, you will recall, is
connected to the impeller), creating a solid connection between the engine and transmission.
Having the engine and transmission directly connected lowers the engine speed for a given
vehicle speed, which increases fuel economy.
If a vehicle has a heavy enough load, its possible for the lockup clutch to slip, which can cause excessive
heat and wear. How can the clutch be prevented from slipping? Since the converter clutch is held in place
by oil pressure, its possible to increase the pressure for a firmer lock, though too much pressure can d
amage the transmission's oil seals. Another way is to use a multi-element clutch, which sandwiches an
additional layer of friction material between the clutch plate and the front cover. A third method
is to use better material on the clutch face a fourth is to increase the clutch surface.
What other ways are there to improve a torque converter? We've already discussed the use of a tuned stall speed
and a more durable lockup clutch. Another area that can be improved is the front cover, which is the side of
the converter that faces (and is attached to) the engine's flywheel or flexplate.
Since the front cover connects directly to the engine, it is subject to incredible amounts of stress.
Many stock torque converters use a stamped steel front cover because they cost less, but under high power
loads they can bend or deform. The solution is to use a billet front cover.
Technically speaking, a billet part is something that is machined from a solid chunk of material. Some
torque converter manufacturers use a solid disc and weld it to the sidewall, while others
simply weld a reinforcement ring into the stock stamped-steel cover. This compromises the cover's strength and can
cause it to warp under load. The strongest covers are precision-machined from a single piece of forged steel,
which is then welded to the impeller to form the outer shell.
So as you can see, the torque converter isn't just a "little black box." It's a complex device that,
if properly tuned, can have a tremendous impact on your vehicle's performance, economy and durability,
and turn your automatic from a "slushbox" into a powerhouse!
Understanding Stall Speed
Let's start by illustrating how the stall speed works. Even under light loads, a vehicle with an automatic
transmission will start moving as soon as you take your foot off the brake. The stall speed comes into play
under all load conditions. When we talk about stall speed, we're referring to engine RPM. If the vehicle
isn't moving by the time the impeller reaches the stall speed, either it will start to move, or the engine
RPM will no longer increase. In other words, stall speed is the engine RPM at which the torque converter
transfers the power of the engine to the transmission.
In the real world, the torque converter's
stall speed roughly equates to the clutch engagement point on a manual transmission. Let's say you're
driving your stick-shift car around town. Normally, you'd give the car a little gas and ease off
the clutch pedal gently enough to get a smooth start. Likewise, under most driving conditions the
torque converter will start delivering power to the transmission at relatively low engine RPM.
Now, let's say you need lots of power, either to make a fast getaway or to start with a heavy load.
You'd rev the engine up to a point where it delivers more power before letting up on the clutch pedal.
It's under those same circumstances that the stall speed becomes important. The torque converter will
allow the engine to build RPM without turning the output shaft (the turbine) until the stall speed is reached.
Let's go inside a high-stall torque converter under heavy load. The impeller
(input side) of the torque converter is spinning quickly, while the turbine (output side)
is spinning slowly or not at all. The motion energy of the impeller is being converted into
heat energy, most of which is passed on to the transmission fluid. The higher the
stall speed, the more heat will be generated. Heat is the enemy of a transmission. You want to
keep the fluid temperature as low as possible. With a lower stall speed, less time elapses before
the motion energy of the impeller is converted to motion energy to drive the turbine, so the
transmission runs cooler and lives longer. If you have a high stall converter in your car, always use a good
transmission fluid radiator or heat exchange, for your transmission to live longer
What many people don't know is
that the torque converter is a tunable device. Stall speed is determined by several factors,
including the distance between the impeller and the turbine and the design of the stator. By
properly modifying the converter's internal components, it's possible to alter the stall
speed and create a torque converter that is tuned for a particular engine.
Source: Aaron Gold